Atrial fibrillation causes pathophysiology and treatment essay

Atrial fibrillation treatment

AF becomes permanent when cardioversion is unsuccessful or has not been attempted. Options for converting A-fib to a regular rhythm include: Electrical cardioversion: The surgeon delivers an electric shock to the heart, which briefly resets the abnormal rhythm to a regular beat. People with certain chronic conditions such as thyroid problems, sleep apnea, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or lung disease have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Although AF may be asymptomatic, up to two thirds of patients report that the arrhythmia is disruptive to their lives. Deciding between a rate control or rhythm control approach depends on patient age and comorbidities, symptoms and haemodynamic consequences of the arrhythmia, but either approach is acceptable. Anyone with heart disease — such as heart valve problems, congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, or a history of heart attack or heart surgery — has an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Cardioembolic strokes in patients with AF are typically larger, associated with higher early mortality, and occur in older patients compared with strokes in patients with sinus rhythm Box 4. The age range is predicted to be three to eighty-three years of age. In atrial fibrillation, the chaotic rhythm may cause blood to pool in your heart's upper chambers atria and form clots. In January of there was an outright ban of dronedarone in Britain by The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NICE which was swiftly accompanied by an ardent backlash from practicing cardiologists Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia with serious complications if not treated correctly. Heart failure. In lone atrial fibrillation, the cause is often unclear, and serious complications are rare. Rate or rhythm strategy Most patients with AF require control of the heart rate for symptomatic relief, and to prevent tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. The condition can lead to a stroke when blood pools in the heart and forms a clot that travels to the brain.

There is considerable evidence from trials to guide estimates of the risk of stroke, and the potential benefits of either anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy, but the risk of major haemorrhage is much more difficult to assess, with less evidence to inform decisions, which therefore remain subjective.

The minimal clinical evaluation comprises a history, physical examination, electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and blood tests of thyroid, renal and hepatic function.

atrial fibrillation symptoms

Deciding between a rate control or rhythm control approach depends on patient age and comorbidities, symptoms and haemodynamic consequences of the arrhythmia, but either approach is acceptable.

Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in daily practice that occurs under diverse situations and its treatment should be based on the different scenarios of presentation.

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Drinking alcohol. A doctor might allow an irregular rhythm to continue but control the heart rate and prescribe an anticoagulant to help prevent a stroke.

A surgeon will often carry out this procedure alongside a heart repair. Complications Sometimes atrial fibrillation can lead to the following complications: Stroke.

Once you have AFib, unless it stops spontaneously on its own, the only way to avoid complications is through appropriate treatment. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying AF may increase the efficacy of this procedure, but currently ablation is not applicable to the large numbers of elderly patients who develop this arrhythmia. A surgeon will sometimes place a pacemaker in a person with intermittent A-fib that only occurs intermittently. Flecainide is also contraindicated with structural heart disease. This alternate medication gives patients the benefit of no dietary restrictions since dabigatran is not affected by certain foods. Patients at high risk eg, valvular AF should receive either heparin or enoxaparin until the day of surgery, and recommence heparin or enoxaparin and usual warfarin at the earliest safe time postoperatively to minimise thrombotic and bleeding complications. The patient was placed on Cardizem and atypical chest pain resolved. It consists of two types of tissues, follicular and parafollicular. A healthy lifestyle may include: Eating a heart-healthy diet. Episodes themselves may be paroxysmal, if they terminate spontaneously, usually within seven days, or persistent if the arrhythmia continues requiring electrical or pharmacological cardioversion for termination. Sinus rhythm probably does confer a benefit, particularly for patients with heart failure.
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Atrial fibrillation: Symptoms, complications, and risk factors