The discrimination of women in the field of criminal justice

The law on rape and the minimising of domestic violence are the paradigm examples of this perspective; the law is gendered, especially in relation to violence, and the new gender-neutral language of legislation does not fully disguise this fact.

females in criminal justice professionals

What is the gender of most children abused over a long period and eventually killed by parents? There are causes for optimism. Until women and children get justice in the system, certain special processes are justified, including anonymity for complainants in sexual offence cases and anonymity for children at all times.

gender bias criminal justice system

In many respects it is true that the battle for formal equality has been won. Women face further discrimination after release from prison. All victims are bundled up together, when policy-makers should be brave enough to say that cases involving abuse of intimacy and the historic discrimination against women deserve special treatment.

gender inequality in the criminal justice system

Increasingly, the arena of political change has moved to the courts, where individual cases become a way of raising wider political issues. The coverage of a rape case at times leads to the discovery that the male accused is a multiple offender, because other women are given the confidence to come forward.

References, notes, and tables Main Term s :. The organization of criminal justice occupations along gender lines is detailed, with emphasis on policing, corrections, and law. The backlash against feminism takes many forms. If we are to believe certain newspapers our preoccupations now are simply to ensure our pay is high and our weight is low. The f-word cannot be mentioned without a boo from the sidelines. Men are the ones we are now to be concerned about. Women have gone through the stage where they did the adjusting; now they expect the institutions to change. Girls are doing better than boys in education; they are filling the universities; they are becoming priests.

Many women enter the criminal justice system with a disturbing history of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Barriers to Rebuilding Government and private companies have increasingly imposed post-conviction penalties on girls and women, including numerous barriers to employment, education, and affordable housing that hinder their attempts to rebuild their lives.

Female criminal justice professional

All victims are bundled up together, when policy-makers should be brave enough to say that cases involving abuse of intimacy and the historic discrimination against women deserve special treatment. Is masculine violence a feature of a patriarchal culture and why is so much of it directed at women? The punitive pursuit of Maxine Carr, Ian Huntley's former girlfriend, who was acquitted of any involvement in the Soham murders, reveals a continuing belief that women have a special, nurturing responsibility towards children. What are we doing to divert men from abuse? This population has gender-specific needs that differ from men in prison, primarily owing to the fact that they are often the primary caregivers of their children before incarceration and are disproportionately victimized by emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in their past. A reported 85 to 90 percent of women who are either currently incarcerated or under the control of the justice system in the United States have a history of domestic and sexual abuse. Shackling pregnant women during labor and delivery is, unfortunately, all too common in our nation's prisons and jails. Discussions about violence never get to the heart of these issues because they are so disconcerting for us, reaching into dark places where primordial power-play simmers. After September 11, American evangelical preachers even claimed that the events were a punishment for the behaviour of feminists and other deviants. They are being battered; they are having false claims made against them of child abuse because of false memory syndrome; they are being refused access to their children; they are falling prey to shameless hussies who try to get money out of tabloids for their stories. If we consider just how our law has historically criminalised aggression - how certain types of anti-social behaviour have been targeted, while others have been either formally or practically left unregulated - then it seems that such law is about male patterns of behaviour and about male standards of acceptable conduct. Girls are disproportionately arrested for running away, accounting for 59 percent of runaways, though they are often fleeing violent home situations. Discrimination now is much more subtle and nuanced and often operates most fiercely at that junction where different forms of prejudice intersect. A lot has improved within the courts and legal system. And then we have had the terrible appeals involving sudden infant deaths, such as those of Angela Cannings and Sally Clark, where women have been victims of miscarriages of justice, their mothering called into question.

Women in prison are also routinely denied basic reproductive health servicessuch as pregnancy testing, prenatal care, screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and access to abortion services.

Many states even impose statutory bans on people with certain convictions working in certain industries such as nursing, child care, and home health care—three fields in which many poor women and women of color happen to be disproportionately concentrated.

Until women and children get justice in the system, certain special processes are justified, including anonymity for complainants in sexual offence cases and anonymity for children at all times. Being poor and female makes for a very different experience from that of the middle-class professional. Only now are the courts shifting to accommodate this different reality. In the absence of viable drug treatment programs, the criminal justice system handles women's drug use and addiction — especially by mothers and pregnant women -- as criminal activity rather than as public health issues. Women in fields numerically dominated by men face many barriers, such as exclusion from informal work cultures, hostility, organizational policies that promote gender separation, differential assignments, and sexual harassment. Instead of debating all these questions boldly, politicians hide behind the much more acceptable cloak of a generalised heading, marked "victims". But the smoke and mirrors used to enlarge these claims are the products of fear that the old arrangements between the sexes might be reconfigured in ways that may be less to the satisfaction of some men. It is why we had to go through such contortions to get the defence of provocation to work for women in domestic killings. The men who do invoke negative stereotypical assumptions - homosexual, black, Irish, Arab, vagrant, Gypsy, unemployed - can suffer just as women do. These women were excluded from most jobs that entailed the exercise of authority over men.
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