The law on rape and the minimising of domestic violence are the paradigm examples of this perspective; the law is gendered, especially in relation to violence, and the new gender-neutral language of legislation does not fully disguise this fact.
What is the gender of most children abused over a long period and eventually killed by parents? There are causes for optimism. Until women and children get justice in the system, certain special processes are justified, including anonymity for complainants in sexual offence cases and anonymity for children at all times.
In many respects it is true that the battle for formal equality has been won. Women face further discrimination after release from prison. All victims are bundled up together, when policy-makers should be brave enough to say that cases involving abuse of intimacy and the historic discrimination against women deserve special treatment.
Increasingly, the arena of political change has moved to the courts, where individual cases become a way of raising wider political issues. The coverage of a rape case at times leads to the discovery that the male accused is a multiple offender, because other women are given the confidence to come forward.References, notes, and tables Main Term s :. The organization of criminal justice occupations along gender lines is detailed, with emphasis on policing, corrections, and law. The backlash against feminism takes many forms. If we are to believe certain newspapers our preoccupations now are simply to ensure our pay is high and our weight is low. The f-word cannot be mentioned without a boo from the sidelines. Men are the ones we are now to be concerned about. Women have gone through the stage where they did the adjusting; now they expect the institutions to change. Girls are doing better than boys in education; they are filling the universities; they are becoming priests.
Many women enter the criminal justice system with a disturbing history of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Barriers to Rebuilding Government and private companies have increasingly imposed post-conviction penalties on girls and women, including numerous barriers to employment, education, and affordable housing that hinder their attempts to rebuild their lives.
Women in prison are also routinely denied basic reproductive health servicessuch as pregnancy testing, prenatal care, screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and access to abortion services.
Many states even impose statutory bans on people with certain convictions working in certain industries such as nursing, child care, and home health care—three fields in which many poor women and women of color happen to be disproportionately concentrated.Until women and children get justice in the system, certain special processes are justified, including anonymity for complainants in sexual offence cases and anonymity for children at all times. Being poor and female makes for a very different experience from that of the middle-class professional. Only now are the courts shifting to accommodate this different reality. In the absence of viable drug treatment programs, the criminal justice system handles women's drug use and addiction — especially by mothers and pregnant women -- as criminal activity rather than as public health issues. Women in fields numerically dominated by men face many barriers, such as exclusion from informal work cultures, hostility, organizational policies that promote gender separation, differential assignments, and sexual harassment. Instead of debating all these questions boldly, politicians hide behind the much more acceptable cloak of a generalised heading, marked "victims". But the smoke and mirrors used to enlarge these claims are the products of fear that the old arrangements between the sexes might be reconfigured in ways that may be less to the satisfaction of some men. It is why we had to go through such contortions to get the defence of provocation to work for women in domestic killings. The men who do invoke negative stereotypical assumptions - homosexual, black, Irish, Arab, vagrant, Gypsy, unemployed - can suffer just as women do. These women were excluded from most jobs that entailed the exercise of authority over men.